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    Blast Furnace Pdf

    Iron Ore Processing for the Blast Furnace. (Courtesy of the National Steel Pellet Company). The following describes operations at the National Steel Pellet. Powdered coal is injected into the blast furnace to ensure an even, high temperature is maintained in the blast furnaces. The molten iron is drained continuously. The purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called. "hot metal". The blast furnace is a huge, steel.

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    Much later descriptions record blast furnaces about three metres high. However, since blast furnace technology was independently invented in Africa by the Haya people , it is more likely that the process was invented independently in Scandinavia.

    Simply just building a bigger furnace and using bigger bellows to increase the volume of the blast and hence the amount of oxygen leads inevitably into higher temperatures, bloom melting into liquid iron and, cast iron flowing from the smelters. Already the Vikings are known to have used double bellows, which greatly increases the volumetric flow of the blast. In this, the molten iron was tapped twice a day into water thereby granulating it.

    This may have included the blast furnace, as the Cistercians are known to have been skilled metallurgists.

    The Cistercians became the leading iron producers in Champagne , France, from the midth century to the 17th century, [30] also using the phosphate -rich slag from their furnaces as an agricultural fertilizer. Origin and spread of early modern blast furnaces[ edit ] Period drawing of an 18th-century blast furnace Due to the casting of cannon, the blast furnace came into widespread use in France in the mid 15th century.

    From there, they spread first to the Pays de Bray on the eastern boundary of Normandy and from there to the Weald of Sussex , where the first furnace called Queenstock in Buxted was built in about , followed by one at Newbridge in Ashdown Forest in They remained few in number until about but many were built in the following decades in the Weald, where the iron industry perhaps reached its peak about Most of the pig iron from these furnaces was taken to finery forges for the production of bar iron.

    Blast furnace

    The output of the industry probably peaked about , and was followed by a slow decline until the early 18th century. This was apparently because it was more economic to import iron from Sweden and elsewhere than to make it in some more remote British locations. Charcoal that was economically available to the industry was probably being consumed as fast as the wood to make it grew.

    The blast furnace spread from here to the central Russia and then finally to the Urals. Coke's initial advantage was its lower cost, mainly because making coke required much less labor than cutting trees and making charcoal, but using coke also overcame localized shortages of wood, especially in Britain and on the Continent.

    Metallurgical grade coke will bear heavier weight than charcoal, allowing larger furnaces. Coke's impurities were more of a problem before hot blast reduced the amount of coke required and before furnace temperatures were hot enough to make slag from limestone free flowing.

    Limestone ties up sulfur. Manganese may also be added to tie up sulfur. Foundry work was a minor branch of the industry, but Darby's son built a new furnace at nearby Horsehay, and began to supply the owners of finery forges with coke pig iron for the production of bar iron.

    Coke pig iron was by this time cheaper to produce than charcoal pig iron.

    The use of a coal-derived fuel in the iron industry was a key factor in the British Industrial Revolution. Cast iron from the furnace was used to make girders for the world's first iron bridge in Steam-powered blast[ edit ] The steam engine was applied to power blast air, overcoming a shortage of water power in areas where coal and iron ore were located.

    The cast iron blowing cylinder was developed in to replace the leather bellows, which wore out quickly. The steam engine and cast iron blowing cylinder led to a large increase in British iron production in the late 18th century.

    Within a few years of the introduction, hot blast was developed to the point where fuel consumption was cut by one-third using coke or two-thirds using coal, while furnace capacity was also significantly increased. Within a few decades, the practice was to have a "stove" as large as the furnace next to it into which the waste gas containing CO from the furnace was directed and burnt.

    We can expect the combustion to be rapid at the high temperatures which it generates. Production of Carbon Monoxide The carbon dioxide produced at the nozzles rises into the furnace and encounters more coke. The reaction is endothermic and it lowers the furnace temperature.

    Advanced Pulverized Coal Injection Technology and Blast Furnace Operation - PDF Free Download

    The reaction is spontaneous above K. Below this temperature the reverse process, the sooting reaction, is favored. The reversibility of the reaction causes the ratio of CO to CO2 in a system at equilibrium to be highly temperature dependent.

    Reduction of Iron Ore The carbon monoxide produced in the active coke zone rises through the furnace and comes into contact with the iron ore.

    The cycle and effect of zinc in the blast-furnace process

    For example, the major breaks at K result because FeO melts at this temperature. The discontinuities at K result because Fe melts at this temperature.

    The minor breaks at K are the result of a crystal structure change in Fe. The absence of discontinuities results from the fact that both phases have the same free energy at the temperature where they exist in equilibrium.

    To understand how the furnace manages to carry out all three reactions we must next look beyond standard conditions.

    Predominance Diagram The conditions required for reduction of iron ore by carbon monoxide can be deduced by considering the chemical equilibrium associated with each step of the reaction sequence. It is the reciprocal of the equilibrium constant.

    The results are shown in Figure 5 as the curve labeled FeO Fe. The system will not be in equilibrium if the gas composition corresponds to a point off the curve. Such a system will attempt to reach equilibrium.

    For example, if the gas composition corresponds to a point above the curve, the reaction will proceed in the forward direction. It will continue until all FeO is consumed or until the gas composition drops to the curve.

    The equilibrium curves have been combined with melting point data to create Figure 6. This predominance diagram identifies the most stable form of iron existing in an atmosphere of mixed CO and CO2.

    Temperature and the composition of the gas phase are varied.

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