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Others divide the logical screen into separate sub-images. The images may also function as animation frames in an animated GIF file, but again these need not fill the entire logical screen.
GIF files start with a fixed-length header "GIF87a" or "GIF89a" giving the version, followed by a fixed-length Logical Screen Descriptor giving the pixel dimensions and other characteristics of the logical screen. The screen descriptor may also specify the presence and size of a Global Color Table, which follows next if present. An image starts with a fixed-length Image Descriptor, which may specify the presence and size of a Local Color Table which follows next if present.
The image data follows: one byte giving the bit width of the unencoded symbols which must be at least 2 bits wide, even for bi-color images , followed by a linked list of sub-blocks containing the LZW-encoded data. Extension blocks blocks that "extend" the 87a definition via a mechanism already defined in the 87a spec consist of the sentinel, an additional byte specifying the type of extension, and a linked list of sub-blocks with the extension data.
Extension blocks that modify an image like the Graphic Control Extension that specifies the optional animation delay time and optional transparent background color must immediately precede the segment with the image they refer to. The linked lists used by the image data and the extension blocks consist of series of sub-blocks, each sub-block beginning with a byte giving the number of subsequent data bytes in the sub-block 1 to The series of sub-blocks is terminated by an empty sub-block a 0 byte.
This structure allows the file to be parsed even if not all parts are understood.
A GIF marked 87a may contain extension blocks; the intent is that a decoder can read and display the file without the features covered in extensions it does not understand.
The full detail of the file format is covered in the GIF specification.
Due to the reduced number of colors in the image, there are display issues. GIF is palette-based: the colors used in an image a frame in the file have their RGB values defined in a palette table that can hold up to entries, and the data for the image refer to the colors by their indices 0— in the palette table. The color definitions in the palette can be drawn from a color space of millions of shades shades, 8 bits for each primary , but the maximum number of colors a frame can use is This limitation seemed reasonable when GIF was developed because few people could afford the hardware to display more colors simultaneously.
Simple graphics, line drawings, cartoons, and grey-scale photographs typically need fewer than colors. Each frame can designate one index as a "transparent background color": any pixel assigned this index takes on the color of the pixel in the same position from the background, which may have been determined by a previous frame of animation.
Many techniques, collectively called dithering , have been developed to approximate a wider range of colors with a small color palette by using pixels of two or more colors to approximate in-between colors. These techniques sacrifice spatial resolution to approximate deeper color resolution.
This is often not an ideal solution for GIF images, both because the loss of spatial resolution typically makes an image look fuzzy on the screen, and because the dithering patterns often interfere with the compressibility of the image data, working against GIF's main purpose. In the early days of graphical web browsers[ when? When bit color became the norm palettes could instead be populated with the optimum colors for individual images. A small color table may suffice for small images, and keeping the color table small allows the file to be downloaded faster.
Both the 87a and 89a specifications allow color tables of 2n colors for any n from 1 through 8. Most graphics applications will read and display GIF images with any of these table sizes; but some do not support all sizes when creating images.
Tables of 2, 16, and colors are widely supported. True color[ edit ] An animated GIF illustrating a technique for displaying more than the typical limit of colors Although GIF is almost never used for true color images, it is possible to do so.
Alternatively, the GIF89a specification introduced the idea of a "transparent" color where each image block can include its own palette of visible colors plus one transparent color.